Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Remarks at Opening Dinner of the 102nd Annual Meeting of the American Jewish Committee

Secretary Condoleezza Rice
Capital Hilton
Washington, DC
April 29, 2008

View Video

SECRETARY RICE: Thank you, very much. Well, first of all, thank you, Richard Sideman, for that really elegant and wonderful introduction, very touching introduction. And I want to thank you for your leadership of this proud and great organization.

Top GOP Jews Help McCain

Several Jews have top fund-raising roles in the Republican campaign to elect John McCain U.S. president.

The Republican Jewish Coalition noted last week that its board members Lew Eisenberg and Wayne Berman are respectively the chairman and deputy chairman of the Republican National Committee's "Victory" campaign aimed at helping the U.S. senator from Arizona win the election.

AJC Address: Condoleezza Rice Reaffirms U.S. Commitment To Israeli Security And Peace

Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice Reaffirms U.S. Commitment to Israeli Security and Peace

April 29, 2008 – Washington – U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice reaffirmed America’s deep commitment to Israeli-Palestinian peace, and urged Arab nations to strengthen their dedication to this effort, at the opening session of the American Jewish Committee’s 102nd Annual Meeting celebrating Israel’s 60th anniversary.

Cardinal And Rabbi To Discuss Role Of Faith In 21st Century May 5, 2008

Rabbi Rosen with Pope Benedict XVI

"Rabbi Rosen, chairman of the International Jewish Committee on Interreligious Consultations, a broad-based coalition of Jewish organizations representing world Jewry to other religions, is head of the department for interreligious affairs and director of the Heilbrunn Institute for International Interreligious Understanding of the American Jewish Committee.

He serves as an honorary president of the International Council of Christians and Jews; and as an international president of the World Conference of Religions for Peace.

In November 2005, Rabbi Rosen was made a papal Knight Commander of the Order of St. Gregory the Great for his outstanding contributions to promoting Catholic-Jewish reconciliation".

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

American National Socialist Workers Party Hears Speech From Indiana Repubican


A Republican congressional candidate in Indiana is defending himself after speaking to a group that was celebrating Adolf Hitler’s birthday.

The Northwest Indiana Times published a photo of candidate Tony Zirkle last week speaking in Chicago to the American National Socialist Workers Party, a neo-Nazi group. He spoke in front of a portrait of Hitler and was flanked by large swastika banners.

Mass Grave of Young Children Found in Germany

A mass grave containing the bodies of at least 20 children has been found in a cemetery in western Germany. Authorities are checking indications that the children fell victim to Hitler's "euthanasia" program which killed thousands of people with mental and physical disabilities.

Friday, April 25, 2008

Constantine's Sword - Catholic Anti-Semitic Film Debuts In NY As Pope Visits Jewish Synagogue

NEW YORK (JTA) -- If the producers of "Constantine's Sword" were looking to send a message about the implications of their film for Catholic-Jewish relations, they scarcely could have chosen a more appropriate theatrical release date.

JTA Source

Call it coincidence or providence. A new documentary about Christian anti-Semitism that has drawn the ire of some Catholic groups premiered Friday in New York -- the same day Pope Benedict XVI visited a synagogue on the city's Upper East Side.

The film, "Constantine's Sword," in which former Roman Catholic priest and author James Carroll traces the violent history of the Christian faith, takes Pope Benedict XVI to task for not fully acknowledging the Catholic Church's and Christianity's role in the rise of Nazism and the Holocaust.

"It wasn't planned," the film's Oscar-nominated director Oren Jacoby says of the film's opening during the papal visit. "But it gives us an opportunity to present the story of Jim, the remarkable story of an American Catholic whose faith was fractured by people hijacking religion."



Movie Source

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Deutsche Welle Looks At NATO Expansion

The leaders of NATO: Bringing stability or asserting regional dominance?

NATO Expansion: A Model for Stability or a Grab for Power?

NATO's proposed expansion into the Balkans and eastwards into Ukraine and Georgia is causing tensions between the alliance and Russia and within NATO itself.

What exactly is planned and is everything as it seems?

Deutsche Welle Source

General David Petraeus Becomes Head Over Middle East, Africa, Afghanistan U.S. Command

Petraeus picked to lead Central Command

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Gen. David Petraeus, the top U.S. commander in Iraq, has been tapped to become chief of U.S. Central Command, Defense Secretary Robert Gates said Wednesday.

CNN Source

Pope Genuflects Before The U.N. - An analysis by Cliff Kincaid From News With Views

Cliff Kincaids offers perspective on the lack of critical analysis on the Pope's United Nations address.

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Alliance Of Civilizations and The Jesuits - As Reported by Bjorn at Fulfilled Prophecy

Where There's Smoke, There's Fire

The Alliance Of Civilizations Media Literacy Education cites The Jesuits as one if its media education literacy organizations.

"The Jesuit Communication Project acknowledges the generous support of
CHUM Television and Warner Bros. Entertainment (Canada) Inc."

For Bjorn's FP's source click here


As the events of a New World Order come to pass, the smoke will thin and become easier for all to see.

Thank you Fulfilled Prophecy and Bjorn for allowing us to see the rich mysteries of the Catholic faith.

- johnny

Saturday, April 19, 2008

NATO Think Thank Comments On AoC: Civilizations: Alliance Or Clash

Civilizations: Alliance or clash

It is easy to criticize the efforts of the UN-sponsored Alliance of Civilizations, for its task is indeed challenging, but it is the only offer on the table, Myriam Käser comments for ISN Security Watch.


Friday, April 18, 2008

The Pope, The Rabbi and The Alliance Of Civilizations

The Pope, The Rabbi and The Alliance Of Civilizations

How Much More Can Lukewarmness Get?

Apparently, A Lot More!

And today is a day that will be remembered as another compromising step to Global Governance.

The Alliance of Civilizations Jewish High Level Group member Rabbi Arthur Schneier will go down in Jewish history as another compromiser paving the way to the future Global Governance World hand in hand with it's Sister Bride Global Religion.

As The Pope enjoys a visit at Schneier's Park East Synagogue will this day be remembered as a day of Christian Unity or Christian Compromise?

Only the daring are asking.

Bloomberg hopes this will put an end to Vatican Jewish quarreling.

Click for Source

Javier Solana Would Have Applauded The Pope's European Unity Speech Last Week - Evangelicals, Pay Attention!

St. Benedict and the key to European unity

Vatican, Apr. 9, 2008 ( - At his regular weekly public audience on April 9, Pope Benedict XVI (bio - news) spoke about the enormous influence of his namesake, St. Benedict.

Speaking to about 22,000 people gathered in St. Peter's Square, the Holy Father resumed his series of talks on the Church fathers, which he had interrupted during the past two weeks to focus on the liturgical events of Holy Week and the Easter vigil.

St. Benedict, the Pope said, is "the father of western monasticism, who with his life and work exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture." His life and work-- recounted in a biography that was written by Pope Gregory the Great-- helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.

Catholic World News Source

NATO's "Collective Intervention" Couldn't Be Expressed More So Than With Pope Benedict Himself At The UN

Pope Benedict Endorses `Collective' Intervention in UN Speech

By Bill Varner

April 18 (Bloomberg) -- Pope Benedict XVI endorsed stronger ``collective'' action to protect human rights, preserve the environment and end humanitarian crises in a speech today to diplomats from 192 nations at the United Nations.

When nations are ``unable to guarantee such protection, the international community must intervene with the judicial means provided in the United Nations Charter and in other international instruments,'' Benedict said. ``It is indifference or failure to intervene that do the real damage.''

Bloomberg Source

From Chaos To Order - Gee! Where Have I Heard That From?

The Vatican on Muslims and Jews

The pope has offended some followers of other faiths but may be mending fences

Posted April 17, 2008

From US News And World Report

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Apologies Are Not Enough! Amen!

Whether you're a primary, high school or university teacher, a policeman, a governor, a parking lot attendant, an Evangelical Pastor or a Catholic Priest - If you break the Law and are found guilty you do the time with those that hid you.

Bravo Spiegel! for Hitting The Mark with Benedicts visit in the U.S.


Pope's Pedophilia Apology 'Not Enough'

Before he even arrived in the US, Pope Benedict XVI apologized for the pedophilia scandal that has rocked the Catholic Church there for the last four years. But German commentators say that more needs to be done.


Benedict's Mixed Messages to Islam - John Esposito


"Given the multi-religious and multi-ethnic nature of America, not only Catholics but also Jews, Protestants, Muslims, and members of other faiths and faith will be monitoring his comments on inter-religious relations. They generally perceive Benedict taking a more conservative approach to relations than John Paul II. To them, Benedict gives mixed messages. On the one hand the Pope reiterates positive Catholic teachings on inter-religious relations, delivered at warm personal meetings with religious leaders. On the other, he affirms conservative theological interpretations in statements and official documents that Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, Muslims and others find offensive.

The most prominent example of this vacillation involves Catholic-Muslim relations. Historically, the Vatican, especially through its Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, has been a pioneer in Catholic-Muslim relations. From Pope Paul VI to John Paul II, Catholics and Muslims have engaged in international dialogue and made common cause on issues of mutual concern at major international conferences in Cairo and China.

However, Benedict’s more conservative retreat became clear in an international uproar after his Regensberg lecture whose primary topic, the relationship between faith and reason, was completely overshadowed by reactions to four paragraphs about Islam. Two incorrect assertions regarding the Prophet Muhammad and the Quran’s relationship to violence and “holy war” resulted in an international protest across the Muslim world. The Pope’s subsequent visit to Turkey helped to calm matters".

For entire article click here

Foxnews asks, "Is Oprah Starting Her Own Cult?"

Oprah Winfrey may have gone too far in exploiting and distributing the teachings of a questionable New Age writer.

On Monday night, Winfrey conducted her weekly Web "event" seminar with New Age writer Eckhart Tolle. His message: "Life is the dancer and you are the dance."

Got that?

The seminar was No. 7 in a series of 10. On the first 90-minute Webcast with Tolle, Oprah extolled the author’s virtues, calling his best-selling "New Earth" book "one of the most important books of our time," the seminars one of "the most exciting things I’ve ever done."

For entire article

Wednesday, April 16, 2008

Russia Warns EU - No EULEX In Kosovo

16 April 2008 | 09:17 | Source: Tanjug

BRUSSELS -- Russia publicly warned the EU not to deploy its EULEX mission in Kosovo by force, Russian Ambassador to the EU Vladimir Chizhov said yesterday.

He emphasized that Russia would agree to a UN Security Council resolution legalizing EULEX if Serbia accepted such a document, and if it clearly defined Kosovo as a part of Serbia.

Chizhov said that the EU had no legal mandate to replace UNMIK in Kosovo, adding that any such steps would require Serbia’s approval.

EU High Representative for Foreign Policy and Security Javier Solana was well aware of Moscow's stand, the Russian diplomat said.

"We are now warning the EU not to take an erroneous step,” he told a press conference in Brussels.

"I’m using this opportunity to send a public warning against any attempt to send the EULEX mission to Kosovo, or to re-establish an international presence,” said Chizhov.

For entire article click here

Surreal Transformation? : Should NATO Buy Hitler's Submarine Facility?

What to Do with Hitler's Submarine Bunker?

By Michael Fröhlingsdorf

"The submarine bunker is gigantic -- and expensive. A World War II-era military facility is slowly succumbing to the elements, and nobody seems willing to pay for its upkeep. In fact, the German armed forces has offered it up for sale".


"There is no mention of NATO interested in acquiring Hitler's Sub Bunk in this article. This is just my absurd conjecture in absurd times.

But, in today's topsy turvy world I could see NATO justifying it's use as an ironic symbol of Transatlantic Renewal and Peace for Global Certainty and Security" -


Russia Under Putin: 8 Years With Vladimir Putin from Deutsche Welle

The Putin Era: Russia Between Managed Democracy And New Imperialism

Vladimir Putin shaped Russia significantly as its president. Under his leadership, the former superpower regained its old strength and made unexpected economic strides.


Saudi Church Project Runs Into The Sand

Saudi Church Project Runs into the Sand

By Alexander Smoltczyk in Rome

Two years after Benedict XVI's comments about Islam sparked protests around the world, the pontiff is once again in conflict with Muslims. This time, friction between the Vatican and Muslims is delaying the construction of what would be Saudi Arabia's first church.

A small group of prominent Islamic scholars recently stood at the airport in Rome, waiting to be picked up. But no one showed up. Instead, the academics had to find their own way to the Vatican, where they had been invited to attend a meeting to establish a "Catholic-Muslim Forum."

It was probably just a slip-up on the part of the Vatican. But it was yet another false step in the ongoing dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Islamic world.


Monday, April 14, 2008

New Push For Arab Peace Initiative Urged

Gulf Times

Tuesday, 15 April, 2008, 01:21 AM Doha Time

IT IS more critical than ever to reinvigorate the Arab Initiative and place it in the forefront of the regional peace process, Middle East expert and academic Alon Ben-Meir told the eighth Doha Forum on Democracy, Development and Free Trade yesterday.

“Unless the collective Arab will and weight, especially Syria’s, is positively engaged in the diplomatic process, the concerted efforts for peace will lead nowhere,” said Ben-Meir, a professor of international relations and Middle Eastern studies at New York University’s Centre for Global Affairs.

The noted journalist and author, who has had two decades of direct involvement in foreign affairs with a focus on the Middle East, explained that all previous peace plans have failed because they lacked the comprehensiveness of the Arab Initiative and excluded Syria from the peace process.

For entire Gulf Times article

John Walvoord Predicted It and Michael Ruppert, From The Wilderness, Found It: One Grand Piece Of The Larger Puzzle

John Walvoord's classic, "Armageddon Oil and the Middle East Crisis: What the Bible Says About the Future of the Middle East and the End of Western Civilization" and his follow up, "Armageddon, Oil, and Terror" has continued to withstand the uneasiness and Plausible Deniability given by most Christian hierarchy facing the church today.

Why is that?

Only the upper echelon can answer that and one day they shall.

But in the meantime, on the topic of Geopolitics and Oil I found an interesting correlation to yesterdays "whistleblowers" and the regressive state that continues to unravel before us.

Not only did the benchmark of Oil Geopolitics get nailed down by Christian Theologian John Walvoord, especially in lieu of the current consensual dialogue we are finding our selves with the Saudi's Arab Peace Initiative, but it's Cross was lifted higher on the "Oil Hill of Calvary", if you permit me, from "From The Wilderness" editor and "Crossing The Rubicon - The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil" author, and ex-Los Angeles Police detective, Michael C. Ruppert.

Basically, on the subject of Oil and Geopolitics, Walvoord foresaw it and Ruppert discovered it.

For more scrutiny, at your leisure, take a look at both writers analysis on the subject and compare it's discourse.

We have Walvoord's and Ruppert's great works to read, but in addition, below is an excerpt from Michael Ruppert's 2008 Retrospective.

Both should enrich and stimulate a much needed perspective in today's Geo-Polities and Diplomacy.

Michael Ruppert and Rags

Michael Ruppert's 2008 Retrospective

March 24, 2008 - I have owed you this update for a long time. Things have evolved so much and so relentlessly that there was no solid ground on which to plant my feet, take a look around and tell you what I saw with a steady gaze. I can do that now.

I know it's not necessary for me to point out to ever-loyal FTW supporters how right we got it in our eight and a half years. A look at economics, energy and geopolitics today mirrors - almost exactly - everything I and the FTW writing staff predicted from 2001 through the end of 2006. Oil is over $100 a barrel. Global oil production has never exceeded the levels of late 2005. Gold is settling in at over $1,000 an ounce and $1,500 may be locked in as a floor by year's end.

The US (and global) economy has begun its irreversible collapse.

The US has not (and will not) attack Iran.

Surrogate wars are developing in West Africa and around Venezuela. I predicted this in a mid-June 2005 private meeting with Congressman Roscoe Bartlett, (R) Maryland as I described a map I had made and he had seen on our web site. Its title was, "World Energy Picture, March 2005." (It's on the FTW web site.) A few days after our meeting Bartlett took that map, along with material from other Peak Oil activists like Matt Savinar, and one I had made of Africa into a private, one-on-one meeting with George W. Bush.

The subject of that meeting was Peak Oil.

In the most frightening article we ever published, "Eating Fossil Fuels" (October 3, 2003), the great Dale Allen Pfeiffer starkly described the umbilical between oil and food. We are just at the threshold of what he told us was coming. Read it if you dare.

FTW was right about Pat Tillman. That series was our last great exposé - but it was by no means our first.

The only major prediction we ever got wrong was that there would be a draft; something the Empire has avoided through Stop-Loss, the recruitment of green-card warriors, and a "surge" in enlistments from young men and women who can find no other employment.

We missed the collapse of the US economy by a year and only the deluded claim the worst is over. The major blessing that FTW enjoyed from 1998 through 2006 of having a readership that had the time and resources to read, to learn, and to fight the good fight, has been replaced by an entire population focused solely on immediate economic survival and a desire to stay out of a vortex swirling toward the drain.

Click for entire article

The Shell Game: Fictional Novel About Geopolitics & Energy Security Captures Desperate Spirit Of The Times We're Living In

Award Winning Science Fiction Novelist, Steve Alten, captures the Desperate Spirit Of Geopolitics and Energy Security in his latest Fiction book entitled, "The Shell Game".

A whodunnit mystery based on the last grab efforts of oil wrapped in an enigmatic layer of intrigue and deception.

Although there will be an absence of a strong intertwined connection between Javier Solana, The European Union, The Alliance of Civilizations and the dubious NATO Transformation, The Shell Game will certainly entertain detective enthusiasts and an eye to detail individuals.

As the debunking of "Peal Oil" has yet to be mentioned or addressed in mainstream media, as well as the debunking of "Javier Solana and Recommendation 666" has yet to mentioned or addressed in mainstream Christianity, The Shell Game can either be ignored or enjoyed.

Even with the enormous amount of research and writing, Steve Alten's "The Shell Game" will be included in my reading leisure where often times a little bit of truth, can be found in the canvass of geopolitics.


Sunday, April 13, 2008

End Of Nations: EU Takeover & the Lisbon Treaty Movie Documentary

Ireland Discovers Pandoras Box: Will They Open It?

We set out to make a video about the pros and cons of the Lisbon Treaty and found out to our horror the lies, manipulations and deceit behind the EU. From MEPs, legal experts and EU researches the true nature of the EU unfolded, how it really operates from behind closed doors and away from prying eyes. We discovered the massive power grab away from citizens and nations to the elites that is being proposed in this treaty. Most shocking of all was how our elected representatives are willingly handing us over to this emerging Totalitarian Superstate by deception , propaganda and outright lies.

This video details how the structures of the EU really operate, what the full significance of the Lisbon Treaty is and how it is the end of Nations within in the EU. MEPs describe their experience in Brussels and how they are undermined by the real power of the unelected and unaccountable Eurocrats who run the organization. How the politicians are working together for their own selfish needs while being used for a bigger agenda.

A Wiki Look at The Lisbon Treaty



A delegation of 13 legislators from nine NATO countries visited Saudi Arabia from 31 March to 4 April and conducted high-level meetings with the Kingdom’s leaders. Led by Karl A. Lamers (Germany), Chairman of the Sub-Committee on NATO Partnerships (PCNP), the group of NATO Parliamentarians discussed a broad range of issues, including Saudi Arabia’s foreign and security perspectives and recent developments in the region.

NATO parliamentarians and Saudi officials repeatedly stressed the importance of reconciliation among different religions. The NATO PA delegation praised the example provided by King Abdullah’s recent initiative calling for dialogue among Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Saudi officials repeatedly said that they welcomed continued dialogue and co-operation with the NATO Parliamentary Assembly.


Youthful German Skeptics Challenge Religious Convention

They'd rather be dancing than praying

A generation of young Germans has turned its back on organized religion, finding the church outdated and irrelevant. Yet a new study shows that focusing on spirituality could win them back.

A newly released survey by the Heidelberg-based Sinus-Sociovision showed that while young people search for meaning to their lives, they don't equate the answers with religion.

Sinus-Sociovision identified different "milieus," or groupings of young people with similar goals and values, such as traditionalists, post-materialists, hedonists or experimentalists. Some of these groups have little or no contact with organized religion. Yet across many different types of youth, there's a general interest in spirituality, the survey found.

This is backed up by a Bertelsmann Foundation study published in December 2007, which found that a relatively large 41 percent of Germans aged 18 to 29 expressed belief in God, and life after death.


Over NATO Differences Germany and US Smooth It Out

"Good luck Frank," said Rice before Steinmeier's ceremonial baseball pitch

Despite recent disagreements, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice are emphasizing the positive. Rice said she's looking forward to catching Steinmeier on YouTube.

In Washington at a joint press conference where no sense of annoyance was felt, Steinmeier and Rice said they discussed a broad range of issues Friday, April 11, including China, Iran, the Middle East and NATO.

Most recently, Germany and the United States had taken opposing sides on whether to invite Georgia and Ukraine to join NATO's membership track and German Chancellor Angela Merkel was reportedly annoyed that US President Bush pushed so hard for the two ex-Soviet states to be admitted to the alliance. NATO promised to incorporate the pair eventually.

"Coming out of the Bucharest summit, we have talked some about continuing to develop the alliance," Rice says, referring to the recent NATO meeting in Romania.

"I think looking back on this summit, we found not only reasonable, but forward-looking results," Steinmeier said in his appearance with Rice.

For entire article

Saturday, April 12, 2008

Alarming Developments For The German Bundeswehr In Afghanistan

Violence in Bundeswehr Deployment Area Increases Dramatically

By Matthias Gebauer

The slayings of six development aid workers and three attacks against the German military in four weeks underscore the "alarming developments" in Northern Afghanistan, warns the head of the German Army, the Bundeswehr. The area of German deployment once believed to be safe is turning into a powderkeg.


Thursday, April 10, 2008

Destination Universitas Foundation

A unique refuge where leaders may rediscover clarity and personal renewal

An Invitation

We offer this project to our global family
as a place where present world realities
can be transformed into global balance.

We invite you to participate in this magnificent adventure!


The mission of Destination Universitas Foundation is to create better balance in the world by transforming leaders.

Executive Summary

Destination Universitas will strive to advance its mission of renewing global leaders by launching its initial leadership sanctuary and programs at Lake Las Vegas in Henderson, Nevada. The intent of the Destination Universitas Foundation is to purchase a unique property,create an empowering infrastructure, design and build model facilities and develop global leadership programs. Once established, this exclusive and dynamic environment will provide a transformational environment where leaders will be inspired to be effective in the 21st century.

A Retreat For World Leaders

An artist’s impression of the Universitas Leadership Sanctuary in the Nevada desert. Image: Chetwood Associates

The Universitas Leadership Sanctuary is intended as part monastery and part conference centre where the most powerful men and women on the planet can get away from it all with a combination of reading, contemplation and even a spot of gardening.

To remind them of their role as leaders of the planet, the sanctuary will be built in the shape of a four-storey globe on the shores of Lake Las Vegas, a privately-owned lake in the south Nevada desert where temperatures can reach 50C at the height of summer.

"The Universitas Leadership Sanctuary will be a centre specifically created to embrace and challenge leaders," says the vision document which Vassar has published. "Together we will create an individual journey leading to the highest place within, enabling leaders to reconnect with their unique purpose in life. They emerge - renewed, with clarity, and reflecting true transformation."

Rice: McCain's Secret Weapon


McCain's Secret Weapon: Condoleezza Rice

By Gabor Steingart in Washington

When two people argue, it sometimes means that a fourth person wins out. The increasingly hostile duel between the Democratic presidential contenders could present a golden opportunity for one of the great talents in US politics: Condoleezza Rice. She could very well end up becoming McCain's running mate.

A Little Glamour Wouldn't Hurt McCain

Only yesterday, McCain did not rule out Rice as a possible running mate. When asked about Rice, he said only that she hadn't approached him yet. At the same time, he did his utmost to praise her, as a "great American" and as a "role model to millions of people in this country and around the world."

'Condoleezza Is Campaigning for Her Candidacy'

There is a kernel of truth to the speculation over Rice, despite her spokesman having denied any such aspirations. The clues that point to her interest lead directly to foot soldiers in the Republican Party.

For the first time since taking office as secretary of state, Rice recently visited one of the meetings of the lobby group Americans for Tax Reform, especially influential during election periods. It is important to note that, for many Americans, their love of country is only exceeded by their affection for money.

Wednesday, April 9, 2008

Kissinger's Three Revolutions and The Debate America SHOULD Be Having

The long-predicted national debate about national security policy has yet to occur
. Essentially tactical issues have overwhelmed the most important challenge a new administration will confront: how to distill a new international order from three simultaneous revolutions occurring around the globe:

(a) the transformation of the traditional state system of Europe;

(b) the radical Islamist challenge to historic notions of sovereignty;


(c) the drift of the center of gravity of international affairs from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

German Catholics Used Forced Labor In Nazi Era

German Catholics Used Forced Labor In Nazi Era

Germany's Catholic Church employed almost 6,000 forced laborers during World War II, according to new research commissioned by the church. The report highlights the church's ambivalent relationship with the Nazis. link

The 703-page report documents the fate of 1,075 prisoners of war and 4,829 civilians who were forced to work for the Nazis in nearly 800 Catholic institutions - mainly hospitals, homes and monastery gardens - as part of the war effort. link

Forced labor was an important tool for the Nazi regime during World War II. link

Friday, April 4, 2008

NATO's Problems - Rafael L. Bardají

NATO approaches the Bucharest summit with a serious problem: Afghanistan. It is widely held that the troops deployed there by NATO are severely insufficient to face the growing threat posed by both the reestablished Taliban forces and the terrorists, which form a part of global jihad. Even more serious, is the fact that only a small portion of the soldiers in the Allied forces is prepared to face, fight and defeat the enemy. Many of them, including the Spanish contingent, are only permitted by their respective governments to assist with the reconstruction of infrastructure, and, if necessary, in the worst-case scenario to act out of self-defense. Overall, however, Afghanistan is not the cause of the hardships facing the Atlantic Alliance today. Afghanistan, in reality, is only one of its many problems. It’s an additional symptom, but not the illness itself.

NATO is now burdened with a number of deep-rooted divisions. The solutions to these divisions will be extremely complex no matter how much hope the highest political representatives put on the summit. Firstly, there is the traditional disagreement between America and the European Allies regarding NATO's strategic approach and the role that the Alliance should play. The United States have a global vision, pressured as it is by the war on terror, and based on the desire to spread liberal democracy throughout the world and to expand NATO eastwards and beyond. This is in complete opposition to the Europeans, who fear a global NATO. Secondly, both old and new European states are divided, as the deployment of the ballistic missile shield has been brought into sharper focus. Whilst the older members of NATO are concerned about their peace missions, Central European members are still highly concerned about Russia and are desperately seeking Washington's help in order to counter the influence of Moscow. One of the most controversial debates relates to the question of how to handle Russia and what kind of relationship it must have with the United States. A third question is related to the relationship between the Allies and non-NATO countries and to what extent they play a role in current operations and in ensuring international security. Relating to this subject, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and Israel cannot go unmentioned. There is much disagreement within NATO on how these countries should be integrated within the Allied framework. Lastly, there is the eternal division between those who have the military capacity to take action wherever necessary and those who do not- the latter forming an extremely worrisome majority.

These problems are at the root of the current crisis facing the Atlantic Alliance. Unfortunately, an obvious and effective way to overcome them does not exist. The fact that NATO is facing serious problems is no longer being denied. We will have to wait and see whether homeopathic therapy, which is always favored by bureaucrats, will be sufficient to resolve this situation. If not, NATO will only have one option for its course of action, an option which it has refused since the emergence of these problems in 1989: shock therapy.

The Leader Of Europe? Answers An Ocean Apart

An Ocean Apart Indeed


The Most Obvious Man Of The Hour

Omitted -

Javier Solana

Henry Kissinger, U.S. secretary of state in the 1970s, once asked, "Who do I call if I want to reach Europe?" A new poll shows a trans-Atlantic gap in the answer today.

Most Americans think the call should be placed to Gordon Brown in London. But Europeans - especially the French - tend to think Angela Merkel should pick up the receiver in Berlin, according to the poll by Harris Interactive for the International Herald Tribune and France 24 television.

When asked what country is the leader of Europe today, a majority of Germans, perhaps unsurprisingly, picked Germany: 57 percent, the same figure as among Spaniards. Among the French, that figure rose to an astonishing 68 percent. The Italians and British were divided on the question between Germany and Britain.

On the other side of the Atlantic, 63 percent of Americans saw Britain as Europe's leading nation.

Looking to the future, the breakdown was roughly the same across the board when people from the six nations were asked about which country will have the most influence in Europe over the next decade.

When asked about political personalities, Europeans chose Merkel, the chancellor of Germany, as No. 1, with President Nicolas Sarkozy of France as a distant second choice. Americans, by contrast, named Brown, the prime minister of Britain, as most influential.

These questions loom large in Europe with the prospect of an election in January for a newly empowered presidency of the European Council, a post that currently rotates every six months among the 27 members of the European Union. Under the Lisbon treaty, which EU leaders agreed to in December after the defeat of a proposed constitution, the leaders would choose a president of the European Council for a 30-month term, renewable once.

The Lisbon treaty, which is moving toward ratification by Jan. 1, also envisions retaining the presidency of the European Commission, a five-year post currently held by José Manuel Barroso, thus giving two possible answers to Kissinger's question.

Two political bloggers in Europe, Jan Seifert and Jon Worth, want to see that number reduced to one. Their Web site,, has a petition calling for a merger of the two presidencies.

Worth said in an interview that the commission presidency is "democratically legitimate," because members of the European Parliament vote on it. The council president, by contrast, will be appointed by vote of the 27 heads of state. Worth argues that the commission president has more legitimacy because the heads of state are rarely chosen in elections where European politics are at issue, in contrast to members of the European Parliament.

"What concerns us would be the possibility of a strong council president and a weak commission president," Worth said. "In the end, you have to look at leadership and legitimacy."

But a substantial minority of Europeans disagree with Seifert and Worth. The poll showed widespread opposition to the very concept of a European president, much less combining the roles of the two future presidencies. While opposition did not reach a majority in any country, Britons were most opposed, at 46 percent, while Italians were the least, at 14 percent.

"The idea does sound a bit scary," Worth conceded. "You have to ask, though, what the alternative is."

When offered a laundry list of possibilities for a possible "president of Europe," along with the choice that there be no president, only a few individuals reached a threshold of 10 percent in any country. Merkel was named in France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Former Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain was named in Britain, Italy and the United States. People in two countries named favorite sons: Jacques Delors, former European Commission president, in France, and former Prime Minister Felipe González in Spain.

Putin Angered Over Possible NATO East Expansion, Would Consider It A Direct Threat

The Russian president, Vladimir Putin. Photograph: Vladimir Rodionov/EPA

The Russian president, Vladimir Putin, today repeated his warning that Moscow would view any attempt to expand Nato to its borders as a "direct threat".

Russia has been angered by the 26-nation military alliance's eastward growth, and Nato yesterday said Ukraine and Georgia, both former Soviet republics, could one day join.


Thursday, April 3, 2008

2008 Bucharest Summit Declaration

1. We, the Heads of State and Government of the member countries of the North Atlantic Alliance, met today to enlarge our Alliance and further strengthen our ability to confront the existing and emerging 21st century security threats. We reviewed the significant progress we have made in recent years to transform NATO, agreeing that this is a process that must continue. Recognising the enduring value of the transatlantic link and of NATO as the essential forum for security consultations between Europe and North America, we reaffirmed our solidarity and cohesion and our commitment to the common vision and shared democratic values embodied in the Washington Treaty. The principle of the indivisibility of Allied security is fundamental. A strong collective defence of our populations, territory and forces is the core purpose of our Alliance and remains our most important security task. We reiterate our faith in the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter.

2. Today, we have decided to invite Albania and Croatia to begin accession talks to join our Alliance. We congratulate these countries on this historic achievement, earned through years of hard work and a demonstrated commitment to our common security and NATO’s shared values. The accession of these new members will strengthen security for all in the Euro Atlantic area, and bring us closer to our goal of a Europe that is whole, free, and at peace.

3. We look forward to the 60th Anniversary Summit in 2009, which will underscore the enduring importance of the transatlantic link. We continue to transform our Alliance with new members; better responses to security challenges, taking into account lessons learned; more deployable capabilities; and new relationships with our partners. The Summit will provide an opportunity to further articulate and strengthen the Alliance’s vision of its role in meeting the evolving challenges of the 21st century and maintaining the ability to perform the full range of its missions, collectively defending our security at home and contributing to stability abroad. Accordingly, we request the Council in Permanent Session to prepare a Declaration on Alliance Security for adoption at the Summit to further set the scene for this important task.

4. We have welcomed to Bucharest a number of our partner nations; Mr. Ban Ki moon, the Secretary General of the United Nations; and prominent representatives of other international organisations. Many of today’s security challenges cannot be successfully met by NATO acting alone. Meeting them can best be achieved through a broad partnership with the wider international community, as part of a truly comprehensive approach, based on a shared sense of openness and cooperation as well as determination on all sides. We are resolved to promote peace and stability, and to meet the global challenges that increasingly affect the security of all of us, by working together.

5. The success of this common effort depends greatly on individual commitment. We pay tribute to the professionalism and bravery of the more than sixty thousand men and women from Allied and other nations who are involved in NATO’s missions and operations. We extend our deepest sympathies to the families and loved ones of those who have died or been injured during the course of their duties. Their sacrifices will not be in vain.

6. Euro Atlantic and wider international security is closely tied to Afghanistan’s future as a peaceful, democratic state, respectful of human rights and free from the threat of terrorism. For that reason, our UN mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission, currently comprising 40 nations, is our top priority. Working with the Afghans, we have made significant progress, but we recognise that remaining challenges demand additional efforts. Neither we nor our Afghan partners will allow extremists and terrorists to regain control of Afghanistan or use it as a base for terror that threatens all of our people. With our ISAF partners, and with the engagement of President Karzai, we will issue a statement on Afghanistan. This statement sets out a clear vision guided by four principles: a firm and shared long term commitment; support for enhanced Afghan leadership and responsibility; a comprehensive approach by the international community, bringing together civilian and military efforts; and increased cooperation and engagement with Afghanistan’s neighbours, especially Pakistan. We welcome announcements by Allies and partners of new force contributions and other forms of support as further demonstration of our resolve; and we look forward to additional contributions. We welcome as well the appointment of Ambassador Kai Eide, the United Nations’ Secretary General’s Special Representative for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), who will provide added impetus and coherence to the international community’s efforts. We welcome the upcoming Paris Conference that will review progress on and strengthen international efforts to further implement the Afghanistan Compact.

7. Our commitment to regional security and stability throughout the Balkans remains steadfast. We praise the prompt, impartial and effective performance by KFOR in the face of violence, and we deplore all attacks against the UN mandated NATO led KFOR and other international presences in Kosovo. We reiterate that KFOR will remain in Kosovo on the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1244 to ensure a safe and secure environment, including freedom of movement, for all people in Kosovo unless the Security Council decides otherwise.

8. In Kosovo, NATO and KFOR will continue to work with the authorities and, bearing in mind its operational mandate, KFOR will cooperate with and assist the United Nations, the European Union and other international actors, as appropriate, to support the development of a stable, democratic, multi ethnic and peaceful Kosovo. We support UN action to ensure respect for the rule of law and call on all parties to take affirmative steps to prevent and condemn violence in Kosovo. NATO and KFOR welcome the restraint shown thus far by the authorities in Kosovo. We expect continued full implementation of their commitments to standards, especially those related to the rule of law and regarding the protection of ethnic minorities and communities, as well as the protection of historical and religious sites, and to combating crime and corruption.

9. NATO stands ready to play its part in the implementation of future security arrangements. Recalling UNSCR 1244, we note the necessity of maintaining international presences throughout Kosovo, whose efforts contribute to freedom of movement and the flow of people and goods, including border monitoring. We call on all actors of the region to engage constructively and to avoid any actions or rhetoric that could undermine the security situation in Kosovo or in any other part of the region. KFOR will continue close security dialogue with all parties.

10. Today’s information environment, in particular with regard to our operations in Afghanistan and Kosovo, underlines the need for appropriate, timely, accurate and responsive communication with local and international audiences in relation to NATO’s policies and engagement in international operations. We welcome the progress made in enhancing NATO's strategic communications capability, as demonstrated by the rapid response Media Operations Centre. We also welcome the launching at our Summit of a new NATO TV channel on the internet which will include regular news updates and video reports, in particular from the various regions of Afghanistan. We underscore our commitment to support further improvement of our strategic communications by the time of our 2009 Summit.

11. Experiences in Afghanistan and the Balkans demonstrate that the international community needs to work more closely together and take a comprehensive approach to address successfully the security challenges of today and tomorrow. Effective implementation of a comprehensive approach requires the cooperation and contribution of all major actors, including that of Non Governmental Organisations and relevant local bodies. To this end, it is essential for all major international actors to act in a coordinated way, and to apply a wide spectrum of civil and military instruments in a concerted effort that takes into account their respective strengths and mandates. We have endorsed an Action Plan comprising a set of pragmatic proposals to develop and implement NATO’s contribution to a comprehensive approach. These proposals aim to improve the coherent application of NATO’s own crisis management instruments and enhance practical cooperation at all levels with other actors, wherever appropriate, including provisions for support to stabilisation and reconstruction. They relate to areas such as planning and conduct of operations; training and education; and enhancing cooperation with external actors. We task the Council in Permanent Session to implement this Action Plan as a matter of priority and to keep it under continual review, taking into account all relevant developments as well as lessons learned.

12. We welcome over a decade of cooperation between the United Nations and NATO in support of the work of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security. We have developed operational cooperation in peacekeeping through the UN mandated NATO led operations in the Balkans and Afghanistan. These shared experiences have demonstrated the value of effective and efficient coordination between the two organisations. Further cooperation will significantly contribute to addressing the threats and challenges to which the international community is called upon to respond. NATO reaffirms its faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations including the exercise of the inherent right of individual or collective self defence recognised by Article 51 of the UN Charter, as stated in the Washington Treaty. The primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security rests with the United Nations Security Council.

13. NATO is also playing its role in contributing to the implementation by nations of UNSCR 1373 and related UNSCRs in the fight against terrorism, and is lending its support to non proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction by playing its role in contributing to the implementation by nations of UNSCR 1540.

14. NATO EU relations cover a wide range of issues of common interest relating to security, defence and crisis management, including the fight against terrorism, the development of coherent and mutually reinforcing military capabilities, and civil emergency planning. Our successful cooperation in the Western Balkans, including with EU operation Althea through the Berlin Plus arrangements, is contributing to peace and security in the region. In the light of shared common values and strategic interests, NATO and the EU are working side by side in key crisis management operations and will continue to do so. We recognise the value that a stronger and more capable European defence brings, providing capabilities to address the common challenges both NATO and the EU face. We therefore support mutually reinforcing efforts to this end. Success in these and future cooperative endeavours calls for enhanced commitment to ensure effective methods of working together. We are therefore determined to improve the NATO EU strategic partnership as agreed by our two organisations, to achieve closer cooperation and greater efficiency, and to avoid unnecessary duplication in a spirit of transparency, and respecting the autonomy of the two organisations. A stronger EU will further contribute to our common security.

15. We condemn in the strongest terms all acts of terrorism, whatever their motivation or manifestation. Our nations remain determined to fight this scourge, individually and collectively, as long as necessary and in accordance with international law and UN principles. Terrorists are using a variety of conventional weapons and tactics, including asymmetric tactics, and may seek to use Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) to threaten international peace and security. We attach great importance to the protection of our populations, territories, infrastructure and forces against the consequences of terrorist attacks. We will continue to develop and contribute to policies to prevent and counter proliferation, with a view to preventing terrorist access to, and use of, WMD. We will also continue to support our programme of work to develop advanced capabilities to help defend against terrorist attacks, including through the continuing development of new technologies. We remain committed to strengthening the Alliance’s ability to share information and intelligence on terrorism, especially in support of NATO operations. Our Alliance provides an essential transatlantic dimension to the response against terrorism and our nations will continue to contribute to the full implementation of UNSCR 1373 and related UNSCRs, in particular UNSCR 1540, and to the wider efforts of the international community in this regard. Dialogue and cooperation with other international organisations, as appropriate, and with our partners are essential, and we welcome efforts towards revitalising the implementation of the Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism. We reiterate our commitment to Operation Active Endeavour, our maritime operation in the Mediterranean, which continues to make a significant contribution to the fight against terrorism.

16. We remain deeply concerned by the continued violence and atrocities in Darfur and call on all parties to cease hostilities. NATO remains ready, following consultation with and the agreement of the United Nations and the African Union (AU), to support their peacekeeping efforts in the region. At the request of the African Union, NATO has agreed to provide support to the AU Mission in Somalia and we are prepared to consider further requests for support to this mission. As an example of our comprehensive approach, we welcome the direct cooperation between NATO and the AU, demonstrated through our recently concluded support to the AU Mission in Sudan and our ongoing support to the African Standby Force. NATO welcomes the European Union’s EUFOR Chad / Central African Republic operation and the EU’s contribution to stability and security in the region.

17. We reiterate the Alliance’s commitment to support the Government and people of Iraq and to assist with the development of Iraqi Security Forces. We have responded positively to a request by Prime Minister Al Maliki to extend the NATO Training Mission Iraq (NTM I) through 2009. We are also favourably considering the Government of Iraq’s request to enhance the NTM I mission in areas such as Navy and Air Force leadership training, police training, border security, the fight against terrorism, defence reform, defence institution building, and Small Arms and Light Weapons accountability. NTM I continues to make an important contribution to international efforts to train and equip Iraqi Security Forces and, to date, has trained over 10,000 members of these forces. Complementing these efforts, NATO has also approved proposals for a structured cooperation framework to develop NATO’s long term relationship with Iraq and continue to develop Iraq’s capabilities to address common challenges and threats.

18. NATO’s ongoing enlargement process has been an historic success in advancing stability and cooperation and bringing us closer to our common goal of a Europe whole and free, united in peace, democracy and common values. NATO’s door will remain open to European democracies willing and able to assume the responsibilities and obligations of membership, in accordance with Article 10 of the Washington Treaty. We reiterate that decisions on enlargement are for NATO itself to make.

19. Our invitation to Albania and Croatia to begin accession talks to join our Alliance marks the beginning of a new chapter for the Western Balkans and shows the way forward to a future in which a stable region is fully integrated into Euro Atlantic institutions and able to make a major contribution to international security.

20. We recognise the hard work and the commitment demonstrated by the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1 to NATO values and Alliance operations. We commend them for their efforts to build a multi ethnic society. Within the framework of the UN, many actors have worked hard to resolve the name issue, but the Alliance has noted with regret that these talks have not produced a successful outcome. Therefore we agreed that an invitation to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia will be extended as soon as a mutually acceptable solution to the name issue has been reached. We encourage the negotiations to be resumed without delay and expect them to be concluded as soon as possible.

21. Admitting Albania and Croatia will enhance the Alliance's ability to face the challenges of today and tomorrow. These countries have demonstrated a solid commitment to the basic principles set out in the Washington Treaty as well as their ability, and readiness, to protect freedom and our shared values by contributing to the Alliance's collective defence and full range of missions.

22. We will begin talks immediately with the aim of signing Accession Protocols by the end of July 2008 and completing the ratification process without delay. During the period leading up to accession, NATO will involve the invited countries in Alliance activities to the greatest extent possible, and will continue to provide support and assistance, including through the Membership Action Plan (MAP). We look forward to receiving the invited countries' timetables for reform, upon which further progress will be expected before, and after, accession in order to enhance their contribution to the Alliance.

23. NATO welcomes Ukraine’s and Georgia’s Euro Atlantic aspirations for membership in NATO. We agreed today that these countries will become members of NATO. Both nations have made valuable contributions to Alliance operations. We welcome the democratic reforms in Ukraine and Georgia and look forward to free and fair parliamentary elections in Georgia in May. MAP is the next step for Ukraine and Georgia on their direct way to membership. Today we make clear that we support these countries’ applications for MAP. Therefore we will now begin a period of intensive engagement with both at a high political level to address the questions still outstanding pertaining to their MAP applications. We have asked Foreign Ministers to make a first assessment of progress at their December 2008 meeting. Foreign Ministers have the authority to decide on the MAP applications of Ukraine and Georgia.

24. We remain committed to the strategically important region of the Balkans, where Euro Atlantic integration, based on democratic values and regional cooperation, remains necessary for lasting peace and stability. We welcome progress since the Riga Summit in developing our cooperation with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia. We encourage each of these three countries to use to the fullest extent possible the opportunities for dialogue, reform and cooperation offered by the Euro Atlantic Partnership, and we have directed the Council in Permanent Session to keep the development of relations with each of these Partners under review.

25. We welcome Bosnia and Herzegovina's and Montenegro's decisions to develop an Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) with NATO. We look forward to ambitious and substantive Action Plans which will further the Euro Atlantic aspirations of these countries and we pledge our assistance to their respective reform efforts towards this goal. To help foster and guide these efforts, we have decided to invite Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to begin an Intensified Dialogue on the full range of political, military, financial, and security issues relating to their aspirations to membership, without prejudice to any eventual Alliance decision.

26. We stand ready to further develop an ambitious and substantive relationship with Serbia, making full use of its Partnership for Peace membership, and with a view to making more progress towards Serbia’s integration into the Euro Atlantic community. We reiterate our willingness to deepen our cooperation with Serbia, in particular through developing an IPAP, and we will consider an Intensified Dialogue following a request by Serbia.

27. We expect Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to cooperate fully with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and will closely monitor their respective efforts in this regard.

28. We recall that the NATO Russia partnership was conceived as a strategic element in fostering security in the Euro Atlantic area, based on core principles, values and commitments, including democracy, civil liberties and political pluralism. Looking back at a history of more than a decade, we have developed a political dialogue as well as concrete projects in a broad range of international security issues where we have common goals and interests. While we are concerned by recent Russian statements and actions on key security issues of mutual concern, such as the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), we stand ready to continue working with Russia as equal partners in areas of common concern, as envisaged by the Rome Declaration and the Founding Act. We should continue our common efforts in the fight against terrorism and in the area of non proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and their means of delivery. We urge Russia to engage actively in important cooperative offers that have been extended. We believe that United States Russia bilateral discussions on missile defence and CFE, among other issues, can make an important contribution in this field. We believe the potential of the NATO Russia Council is not fully realised and we remain ready to identify and pursue opportunities for joint actions at 27, while recalling the principle of independence of decision making and actions by NATO or Russia. We reaffirm to Russia that NATO’s Open Door policy and current, as well as any future, NATO Missile Defence efforts are intended to better address the security challenges we all face, and reiterate that, far from posing a threat to our relationship, they offer opportunities to deepen levels of cooperation and stability.

29. We note Russia’s ratification of the Partnership for Peace Status of Forces Agreement, and hope that it will facilitate further practical cooperation. We appreciate Russia's readiness to support NATO's ISAF mission in Afghanistan by facilitating transit through Russian territory. We would welcome deepened NATO Russia cooperation in support of, and agreed by, the Government of Afghanistan, and look forward to building on the solid work already achieved in training Afghan and Central Asian counter narcotics officers. Our continued cooperation under our Cooperative Airspace Initiative and Russia’s support to Operation Active Endeavour in the Mediterranean contribute to our common fight against terrorism. We also welcome our cooperation on military interoperability, theatre missile defence, search and rescue at sea, and civil emergency planning.

30. We reaffirm that NATO’s policy of outreach through partnerships, dialogue, and cooperation is an essential part of the Alliance’s purpose and tasks. The Alliance’s partnerships across the globe have an enduring value, contributing to stability and security in the Euro Atlantic area and beyond. With this in mind, we welcome progress made since our last Summit in Riga in strengthening NATO’s policy of partnerships and cooperation, and reaffirm our commitment to undertake further efforts in this regard.

31. We value highly the contributions that our partners are making to NATO’s missions and operations. Seventeen nations outside the Alliance are contributing forces to our operations and missions and many others provide different forms of support. We will continue to strive to promote greater interoperability between our forces and those of partner nations; to further enhance information sharing and consultations with nations contributing to NATO led operations; and to offer partner countries NATO’s advice on, and assistance with, the defence and security related aspects of reform.

32. We welcome our Euro Atlantic Partners at the Bucharest Summit and reiterate the enduring value of the Euro Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme. We remain committed to substantive political discussions and effective cooperation within these frameworks. We welcome Malta’s return to the PfP and look forward to its active engagement in the EAPC. We welcome the strengthening of political dialogue through the EAPC Security Forum. We will give priority to several new practical initiatives, which include building integrity in defence institutions and the important role of women in conflict resolution as outlined in UNSCR 1325. We value the Euro Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre’s successes over the past ten years in coordinating NATO and partner countries’ contributions to disaster relief. We will continue to make full use of the NATO/PfP Trust Funds and of their opening to other partner countries. We welcome and will continue to support the engagement of all interested Partners across the Euro Atlantic area in programmes to support defence and broader reforms, including the Individual Partnership Action Plan. Recalling our Istanbul Summit decision, we are committed to engage our Partners in the strategically important regions of the Caucasus and Central Asia, including by strengthening liaison arrangements in these regions, and will continue dialogue with our Central Asian Partners on Afghanistan. We appreciate the significant contributions provided by our EAPC Partners to Alliance operations and look forward to working with them to address the security challenges of the 21st century.

33. We are pleased to note the significant progress achieved in the framework of our Mediterranean Dialogue since the Istanbul and Riga Summits. Political consultations with our Mediterranean Dialogue partners have gained both in frequency and substance, and the meeting held between our Foreign Ministers and their seven Mediterranean Dialogue partners last December contributed to a further deepening of our partnership. We therefore plan to pursue this momentum through deepening our liaison arrangements, on a voluntary basis, with the region. Our practical cooperation has grown in several areas, and new opportunities have been created especially in training and education. We welcome the progress made in the implementation activities of the NATO Training Cooperation Initiative, in the spirit of joint ownership and in the view of launching the NATO Regional Cooperation Course at the NATO Defense College, where two pilot courses were successfully conducted. We encourage our Mediterranean Dialogue partners to work with us to develop this Initiative further. The conclusion of Individual Cooperation Programmes (ICP) with Egypt and Israel will help in establishing long term, structured and effective cooperation with those countries. We encourage our other Mediterranean Dialogue partners to develop their own ICP in the near future. We welcome the implementation of the first ever Mediterranean Dialogue Trust Fund project to assist Jordan with the disposal of unexploded ordnance and ammunitions, and the launching of the feasibility study for the Trust Fund project to assist Mauritania with the disposal of ammunitions. We thank our Mediterranean Dialogue partners for their various contributions to our operations and missions.

34. We welcome the response of four countries in the Gulf region to our offer of cooperation in the framework of the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI) and encourage other countries of the region to take up that offer. To that end, we plan to develop our liaison arrangements, on a voluntary basis, with this region. We are pleased to see their increased interest and participation in NATO training and education activities, and stand ready to enhance our cooperation in this and other fields. We welcome the progress made in the implementation activities of the NATO Training Cooperation Initiative, in the spirit of joint ownership and in the view of launching the NATO Regional Cooperation Course at the NATO Defense College, where two pilot courses were successfully conducted. We encourage our ICI partners to work with us to develop this Initiative further. We encourage our ICI partners to develop an ICP with a view to better structuring our cooperation. We very much appreciate the support provided by our ICI partners to Alliance operations and missions.

35. The Alliance places a high value on its expanding and varied relationships with other partners across the globe. Our objectives in these relationships include support for operations, security cooperation, and enhanced common understanding to advance shared security interests and democratic values. We have made substantial progress in building political dialogue and developing individual Tailored Cooperation Packages with a number of these countries. We particularly welcome the significant contribution by Australia, Japan, New Zealand and Singapore to NATO led efforts in Afghanistan. We also welcome the valuable contributions by the Republic of Korea to efforts which support the NATO led mission in Afghanistan. Recognising that each of these countries wishes to pursue a unique degree of relations with NATO, and that other countries may wish to pursue dialogue and cooperation with NATO as well, we reiterate our willingness to further develop existing, and openness to new, individual relationships, subject to the approval of the North Atlantic Council, and at a pace that respects mutual interests in so doing.

36. We reaffirm the continued importance of the Black Sea region for Euro Atlantic security. In this regard, we welcome the progress in consolidation of regional ownership, through effective use of existing initiatives and mechanisms. The Alliance will continue to support, as appropriate, these efforts guided by regional priorities and based on transparency, complementarity and inclusiveness, in order to develop dialogue and cooperation among the Black Sea states and with the Alliance.

37. Ballistic missile proliferation poses an increasing threat to Allies’ forces, territory and populations. Missile defence forms part of a broader response to counter this threat. We therefore recognise the substantial contribution to the protection of Allies from long range ballistic missiles to be provided by the planned deployment of European based United States missile defence assets. We are exploring ways to link this capability with current NATO missile defence efforts as a way to ensure that it would be an integral part of any future NATO wide missile defence architecture. Bearing in mind the principle of the indivisibility of Allied security as well as NATO solidarity, we task the Council in Permanent Session to develop options for a comprehensive missile defence architecture to extend coverage to all Allied territory and populations not otherwise covered by the United States system for review at our 2009 Summit, to inform any future political decision.

38. We also commend the work already underway to strengthen NATO Russia missile defence cooperation. We are committed to maximum transparency and reciprocal confidence building measures to allay any concerns. We encourage the Russian Federation to take advantage of United States missile defence cooperation proposals and we are ready to explore the potential for linking United States, NATO and Russian missile defence systems at an appropriate time.

39. We reaffirm that arms control, disarmament and non proliferation will continue to make an important contribution to peace, security, and stability and, in this regard, to preventing the spread and use of Weapons of Mass Destruction and their means of delivery. We took note of the report prepared for us on raising NATO’s profile in this field. As part of a broader response to security issues, NATO should continue contributing to international efforts in the area of arms control, disarmament and non proliferation, and we task the Council in Permanent Session to keep these issues under active review.

40. The Alliance has reduced both its conventional forces significantly from Cold War levels and has reduced nuclear weapons assigned to NATO by over 90%. Allies have also reduced their nuclear arsenals. France has reduced the types of its nuclear systems to two, the number of its nuclear delivery vehicles by over half, and has announced it will reduce the number of its nuclear warheads to fewer than 300, with no other weapons beside those in its operational stockpile. The United Kingdom has reduced to one nuclear system, and has reduced the explosive power of its nuclear stockpile by 75%, and its number of operationally available nuclear warheads to fewer than 160. The United States has reduced its nuclear weapon stockpile to less than 25% of its size at the height of the Cold War, and decreased tactical nuclear weapons assigned to NATO by nearly 90%.

41. We remain deeply concerned about the proliferation risks of the Iranian nuclear and ballistic missile programmes. We call on Iran to fully comply with UNSCRs 1696, 1737, 1747 and 1803. We are also deeply concerned by the proliferation activities of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and call on it to fully comply with UNSCR 1718. Allies reaffirm their support for existing multi lateral non proliferation agreements, such as the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty, and call for universal compliance with the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty and universal adherence to the Additional Protocol to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguard Agreement and full compliance with UNSCR 1540. Allies agree to redouble their efforts to fully implement the non proliferation agreements and relevant UNSCRs to which Allies reaffirm their support and by which they are bound.

42. We fully endorse the statement of the North Atlantic Council of 28 March 2008 and reaffirm the Alliance’s commitment to the CFE Treaty Regime, as expressed in the Alliance’s position contained in paragraph 42 of the 2006 Riga Summit Declaration, the final statement by Allies at the CFE Extraordinary Conference in Vienna and Alliance statements reflecting subsequent developments. We place the highest value on the CFE Treaty regime with all its elements and underscore the strategic importance of the CFE Treaty, including its flank regime, as a cornerstone of Euro Atlantic Security. We are deeply concerned that the Russian Federation has continued its unilateral "suspension" of its legal obligations under the CFE Treaty. This action does not contribute to our common objective of preserving the long-term viability of the CFE regime and we urge the Russian Federation to resume its implementation. The current situation, where NATO CFE Allies implement the Treaty while Russia does not, cannot last indefinitely. We have offered a set of constructive and forward looking proposals for parallel actions on key issues, including steps by NATO Allies on ratification of the Adapted CFE Treaty and by the Russian Federation on outstanding commitments related to Georgia and the Republic of Moldova. We believe these proposals address all of Russia’s stated concerns. We encourage Russian authorities to work cooperatively with us and other concerned CFE States Parties to reach agreement on the basis of the parallel actions package so that together we can preserve the benefits of this landmark regime.

43. We are concerned with the persistence of regional conflicts in the South Caucasus and the Republic of Moldova. Our nations support the territorial integrity, independence and sovereignty of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Republic of Moldova. We will continue to support efforts towards a peaceful settlement of these regional conflicts, taking into account these principles.

44. We have already done much to transform our forces and capabilities in line with our political objectives, in particular the priorities laid out in the Comprehensive Political Guidance, and our operational experience. We will continue this process to ensure the Alliance remains able to meet its operational commitments and perform the full range of its missions. Our operations highlight the need to develop and field modern, interoperable, flexible and sustainable forces. These forces must be able to conduct, upon decision by the Council, collective defence and crisis response operations on and beyond Alliance territory, on its periphery, and at strategic distance, with little or no host nation support. We will also ensure that we have the right kind of capabilities to meet the evolving security challenges of the 21st century, and to do so, we will transform, adapt and reform as necessary.

45. Transformation is a continual process and demands constant and active attention. We therefore support our Defence Ministers’ efforts as they oversee the management of the defence aspects of transformation to ensure NATO remains effective and efficient, especially by pursuing ongoing efforts in the following areas:

o We must ensure that we provide the forces required for our operations and other commitments. To that end we will continue efforts to be able to deploy and sustain more forces. We are committed to support the NATO Response Force by providing the necessary forces, and to improving the availability of operational and strategic reserve forces for our operations. We will seek greater domestic support for our operations, including through improved public diplomacy efforts.

o We will further develop the capabilities required to conduct the full range of our missions and to remedy specific shortfalls. We will work particularly at improving strategic lift and intra-theatre airlift, especially mission-capable helicopters and welcome national initiatives in support of this work, as well as addressing multinational logistics. We will further strengthen information superiority through networked capabilities, including an integrated air command and control system; increased maritime situational awareness; and timely delivery of the Alliance Ground Surveillance capability. We will continue to enhance the capability and interoperability of our special operations forces. Supported by the defence planning processes, we will enhance our efforts to develop and field the right capabilities and forces, with the greatest practicable interoperability and standardisation. This will be furthered by improving trans-Atlantic defence industrial cooperation.

o We are committed to develop policies and capabilities to deal with emerging challenges and threats. This includes the development of a comprehensive policy for preventing the proliferation of WMD and defending against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats.

o We are pursuing the adaptation and reform of the Alliance’s structures and processes. In this context we are reviewing the peacetime establishment of the NATO Command Structure to make it leaner, more effective and efficient, and reforming defence planning processes in order to promote timely delivery of the capabilities sought by the Comprehensive Political Guidance.

46. Transformation is not possible without sufficient, properly prioritised resources. We are committed to continuing to provide, individually and collectively, the resources necessary for our Alliance to perform the tasks we demand from it. Therefore we encourage nations whose defence spending is declining to halt that decline and to aim to increase defence spending in real terms.

47. NATO remains committed to strengthening key Alliance information systems against cyber attacks. We have recently adopted a Policy on Cyber Defence, and are developing the structures and authorities to carry it out. Our Policy on Cyber Defence emphasises the need for NATO and nations to protect key information systems in accordance with their respective responsibilities; share best practices; and provide a capability to assist Allied nations, upon request, to counter a cyber attack. We look forward to continuing the development of NATO’s cyber defence capabilities and strengthening the linkages between NATO and national authorities.

48. We have noted a report "NATO’s Role in Energy Security", prepared in response to the tasking of the Riga Summit. Allies have identified principles which will govern NATO’s approach in this field, and outlined options and recommendations for further activities. Based on these principles, NATO will engage in the following fields: information and intelligence fusion and sharing; projecting stability; advancing international and regional cooperation; supporting consequence management; and supporting the protection of critical energy infrastructure. The Alliance will continue to consult on the most immediate risks in the field of energy security. We will ensure that NATO’s endeavours add value and are fully coordinated and embedded within those of the international community, which features a number of organisations that are specialised in energy security. We have tasked the Council in Permanent Session to prepare a consolidated report on the progress achieved in the area of energy security for our consideration at the 2009 Summit.

49. Demands on our Alliance have grown in complexity in the last twenty years, as the security environment has changed and both the scope of our missions and operations and our membership have expanded. This requires continual adaptation and reform of NATO Headquarters’ structures and processes. We note the progress that has been made in this field, as part of NATO’s overall transformation; but more remains to be done, including to get full benefit from our move to a new Headquarters building. In evaluating where we need to change, we need to make fuller use of lessons drawn from our experience in delivering our core functions, including meeting operational, capability development, partnership and strategic communications requirements. Building on our Defence Ministers’ work to take forward the defence aspects of transformation, Allies will also need to consider how to achieve the fastest and most coherent flow of sound political, military and resource advice to support our consensual decision making, and to enhance our responsiveness to time sensitive operational needs, including those of NATO Commanders. We have requested the Secretary General to chart a path forward, in time for the 2009 Summit, on how to meet these objectives.

50. We express our sincere appreciation for the gracious hospitality extended to us by the Government of Romania. The city of Bucharest has been the venue of NATO’s largest ever Summit meeting, highlighting the Alliance’s determination to work closely with the International Community as well as its own unique contribution to promoting security and stability in a fast changing strategic environment. At our meeting we have taken decisions and given further direction for NATO’s own ongoing adaptation to that environment, through its missions and operations, the modernisation of its structures and capabilities, closer engagement of other nations and organisations, as well as its continuing openness to the inclusion of additional member states. We have strengthened our dialogue and cooperation with countries and organisations vital to our security. We will meet again next year in Strasbourg and Kehl to celebrate NATO’s 60th anniversary, take stock of its adaptation, and give further direction for the modernisation of our Alliance to meet the security challenges of the 21st century.